Beth A. Simmons

University of Pennsylvania

3501Sansom

Philadelphia, PA 19104

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

48

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10,551

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 2,172

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198

CROSSREF CITATIONS

407

Scholarly Papers (48)

1.

Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity?

Number of pages: 54 Posted: 21 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 08 Mar 2016
Hyeran Jo and Beth A. Simmons
Texas A&M University - Department of Political Science and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 1,732 (12,621)
Citation 17

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International Criminal Court (ICC), international criminal justice, deterrence, peace, insurgent groups, civil war, war crimes

The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition or Learning?

Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 33, pp. 449-472, August 2007
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 05 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin and Geoffrey Garrett
University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 1,185 (22,154)
Citation 1

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global diffusion, public policy

The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition, or Learning?

Dobbin, Frank, Beth Simmons, and Geoffrey Garrett. 2007. “The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition, or Learning?” Annual Review of Sociology 33, pp. 449-72
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 20 Jun 2013
Frank Dobbin, Beth A. Simmons and Geoffrey Garrett
Harvard University - Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 60 (452,496)
Citation 7

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political sociology, new institutionalism, international relations

The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition, or Learning?

Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 33, August 2007
Posted: 21 Dec 2007
Frank Dobbin, Beth A. Simmons and Geoffrey Garrett
Harvard University - Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania and Pacific Council on International Policy

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political sociology, new institutionalism, international relations

3.

Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960-2000

Number of pages: 48 Posted: 22 Aug 2004
Zachary Elkins, Andrew T. Guzman and Beth A. Simmons
University of Texas, Austin, USC Gould School of Law and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 898 (33,595)
Citation 69

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Bilateral investment treaties, investment, FDI, diffusion

The Global Diffusion of Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking

Number of pages: 47 Posted: 16 Aug 2011
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 365 (103,920)
Citation 1

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transnational crime, trafficking, globalization

The Global Diffusion of Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking

International Organization, Vol. 72, p. 249, 2018, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-11
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 05 Jul 2013 Last Revised: 28 Feb 2019
Beth A. Simmons, Paulette Lloyd and Brandon M. Stewart
University of Pennsylvania, Government of the United States of America - Department of State and Princeton University - Department of Sociology
Downloads 212 (182,861)
Citation 12

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Transnational criminal law, empirical legal studies, transborder highways, road travel, policy diffusion, trafficking in persons, externalities, interdependence, organized crime

Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960-2000

University of Illinois Law Review, Forthcoming, U. of St. Gallen Law & Economics Working Paper No. 2007-21
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 20 Jul 2007
Beth A. Simmons, Zachary Elkins and Andrew T. Guzman
University of Pennsylvania, University of Texas, Austin and USC Gould School of Law
Downloads 362 (104,897)
Citation 11

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Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960-2000

International Organization, Vol. 60, No. 4, pg. 811-846, October 2006
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 10 Mar 2010
Beth A. Simmons, Andrew T. Guzman and Zachary Elkins
University of Pennsylvania, USC Gould School of Law and University of Texas, Austin
Downloads 180 (212,288)
Citation 1

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capital, diffusion, bilateral investment treaties

6.

Getting to Rights: Treaty Ratification, Constitutional Convergence, and Human Rights Practice

Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2013, U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 434
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 22 Jul 2013
Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and Beth A. Simmons
University of Texas, Austin, University of Chicago Law School and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 486 (74,994)
Citation 6

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7.

The Power of Ranking: The Ease of Doing Business Indicator and Global Regulatory Behavior

International Organization, Forthcoming, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-05
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 22 Jan 2019
Rush Doshi, Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
Brookings Institution, Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 425 (87,989)
Citation 1

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International domestic policy competition, deregulatory ranking system, Global Performance Indicators, GPIs, comparative information, influence of ranking, World Bank motives, EDB database & market share & criticisms, bureaucratic restructuring, policy reforms, impact of publicity, modern India

8.

Power Plays & Capacity Constraints: The Selection of Defendants in WTO Disputes

Number of pages: 49 Posted: 03 Feb 2005
Andrew T. Guzman and Beth A. Simmons
USC Gould School of Law and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 390 (97,129)
Citation 6

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WTO, dispute resolution, capacity, international trade

9.

The Power of Performance Indicators: Rankings, Ratings and Reactivity in International Relations

APSA 2014 Annual Meeting Paper
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 25 Aug 2014
Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 365 (104,727)

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global governance, soft power, shaming, international relations, global governance indicators, indices

10.

National Law Enforcement in a Globalized World: The Case of Human Trafficking

APSA 2013 Annual Meeting Paper, American Political Science Association 2013 Annual Meeting
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 22 Aug 2013
Richard W. Frank and Beth A. Simmons
Australian National University (ANU) and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 336 (114,947)
Citation 1

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human trafficking, trafficking in persons, globalization, criminal justice, diffusion transnational crime, law enforcement, negative externalities

11.

The Future of Central Bank Cooperation

BIS Working Paper No. 200
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 20 Sep 2007
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 324 (119,538)
Citation 6

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central bank, cooperation, monetary and financial stability, Bank for International Settlements, China

12.

Border Orientation in a Globalizing World

U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 21-10, American Journal of Political Science, Forthcoming
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 11 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 24 Feb 2021
Beth A. Simmons and Michael Kenwick
University of Pennsylvania and Rutgers University - New Brunswick
Downloads 313 (123,999)
Citation 3

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Borders, Border Security, Border Walls

13.

Rewards for Rights Ratification? Testing for Tangible and Intangible Benefits of Human Rights Treaty Ratification

Number of pages: 32 Posted: 13 Aug 2009 Last Revised: 07 Feb 2012
Rich Nielsen and Beth A. Simmons
Harvard University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 298 (130,720)
Citation 4

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International law, human rights

Do Self-Reporting Regimes Matter? Evidence from the Convention Against Torture

Boston Univ. School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 15-55
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 02 Dec 2015 Last Revised: 16 Feb 2016
Cosette D. Creamer and Beth A. Simmons
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Department of Political Science and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 147 (252,297)
Citation 1

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international law, self-reporting, international agreements, international treaties, human rights, treaty implementation

Do Self-Reporting Regimes Matter? Evidence From the Convention Against Torture

International Studies Quarterly (2019, Forthcoming)., U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-16
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 05 Mar 2019
Beth A. Simmons and Cosette D. Creamer
University of Pennsylvania and University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Department of Political Science
Downloads 91 (356,637)

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international law, international politics, international legal norms, treaties, conventions, international agreements, international human rights, treaty implementation, treaty compliance, states parties, periodic review, international community

15.

Civil Rights in International Law: Compliance with Aspects of the ‘International Bill of Rights’

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 437-481, July 2009, Harvard Law and Economics Discussion
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 08 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 167 (226,287)
Citation 6

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civil rights, international law

16.

Human Rights and Human Welfare: Looking for a ‘Dark Side’ to International Human Rights Law

In: The Future of Human Rights 60-87 (Jack Snyder et al. eds., Cambridge University Press, 2018)., U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-08
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 27 Feb 2019
Beth A. Simmons and Anton Strezhnev
University of Pennsylvania and University of Chicago - Department of Political Science
Downloads 166 (227,493)
Citation 4

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international human rights law, criticisms, claims of negative effects, empirical review, legitimacy of system, human rights research, trade-offs, hide violations, harm economic development & social justice, empirical evidence of net harms, no credible evidence of causation, dangers of arguments

17.

Ratification, Reporting and Rights: Quality of Participation in the Convention Against Torture

Cosette Creamer and Beth A. Simmons, "Ratification, Reporting, and Rights: Quality of Participation in the Convention Against Torture," Human Rights Quarterly (August 2015), Forthcoming
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 24 Sep 2014
Cosette D. Creamer and Beth A. Simmons
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Department of Political Science and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 143 (257,312)
Citation 1

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18.

The International Investment Regime Since the 1980s: A Transnational 'Hands-Tying' Regime for International Investment

Number of pages: 52 Posted: 22 Aug 2011
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 142 (258,740)
Citation 2

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19.

Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism

International Organization, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 781-810, October 2006
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 06 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin and Geoffrey Garrett
University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 129 (278,593)
Citation 13

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liberalism, diffusion

20.

Borders Rules

International Studies Review (2019, Forthcoming)., U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-07
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 31 Jan 2019
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 126 (283,617)

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migration, immigration, border crossing, border security, international politics, interstate relations, refugees, refugee law, national security, political boundaries, boundary delineation, border control, border walls, border fences, human rights

21.

Introduction: The Diffusion of Liberalization

The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy, 2008
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 20 Mar 2014
Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin and Geoffrey Garrett
University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 118 (297,382)
Citation 1

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22.

Power Plays and Capacity Constraints: The Selection of Defendants in WTO Disputes

Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2 , pp. 557-598, June 2005
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 05 Dec 2009
Andrew T. Guzman and Beth A. Simmons
USC Gould School of Law and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 116 (300,959)

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power plays, capacity constraints, WTO

23.

Globalization and Border Securitization in International Discourse

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 13 Nov 2019
Beth A. Simmons and Robert Shaffer
University of Pennsylvania and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 109 (314,470)
Citation 2

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24.

The Constraining Power of International Treaties

American Political Science Review, Vol. 99, No. 4, 623-631, November 2005
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 04 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons and Daniel J. Hopkins
University of Pennsylvania and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 108 (316,459)

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international treaties

25.

Introduction: The Power of Global Performance Indicators

International Organization, Forthcoming, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-06
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 20 Jan 2019
Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 85 (369,092)
Citation 6

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International governmental & non-governmental organizations, globalization, performance evaluation, measurement, quantitative metrics, status, reputation, competition, public opinion, advocacy, Millennium Development Goals, MDG, Aid Transparency Index, AT

26.

Rules Over Real Estate: Trade, Territorial Conflict, and International Borders as Institutions

Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 49, No. 6, pp. 823-848, December 2005
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 08 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 84 (371,721)
Citation 3

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trade, territorial conflict, international borders

27.

Assessing the International Criminal Court

In The Performance of International Courts and Tribunals (Andreas Follesdal, Theresa Squatrito, and Geir Ulfstein eds., Cambridge 2018), U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-04
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 17 Jan 2019
Hyeran Jo, Mitchell Radtke and Beth A. Simmons
Texas A&M University - Department of Political Science, Bucknell University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 83 (374,330)

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Empirical legal studies, International Criminal Court, ICC, Rome Statute, crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes, prevention, deterrence, domestic law, jurisdiction, outcome performance evaluation

28.

Rulers or Rules? International Law, Elite Cues and Public Opinion

European Journal of International Law, 2019, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-06
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 24 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 03 Mar 2021
Anton Strezhnev, Beth A. Simmons and Matthew Kim
University of Chicago - Department of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania and Harvard Law School
Downloads 80 (382,568)
Citation 1

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International law, political science, domestic politics, national leaders, elite rulers, national policy conflicts with international law, international refugee law messages’ effect on public opinion, messages from domestic elites do not strictly trump those from international sources

29.

The Proof is in the Process: Self-Reporting Under International Human Rights Treaties

114 Am J. Int'l L. 1 (2020), U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-05
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 13 Feb 2020
Cosette D. Creamer and Beth A. Simmons
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Department of Political Science and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 75 (396,863)

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International law, human rights, international agreements, treaty body system, self-reporting systems, periodic review, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, socialization theory, treaty implementation, treaty compliance, reporting & responding, judicial enforcement of human rights

30.

Pandemic Response as Border Politics

International Organization, Vol. 74, No. Supplemental Issue E.1, 2020, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-31
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 09 Sep 2020
Michael Kenwick and Beth A. Simmons
Rutgers University - New Brunswick and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 74 (399,889)

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COVID-19 pandemic, global health crisis, politics, external border restrictions, historical quarantines, travel bans, border orientation, WHO, uncertainty, anxiety, filtering infrastructure, empirical investigation of control measures, border control

31.

Framing for a New Transnational Legal Order: The Case of Human Trafficking

In TRANSNATIONAL LEGAL ORDERS, ed. Terence C. Halliday and Gregory Shaffer, Cambridge 2015, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 16-43
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 17 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 19 Nov 2016
Paulette Lloyd and Beth A. Simmons
Government of the United States of America - Department of State and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 67 (421,981)

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Human trafficking, globalization, transnational crime, framing, human rights, international law, criminalization, international consensus, norms, international criminal law, women and children

32.

On Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, No. 598, pp. 33-51, March 2005
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 05 Dec 2009
Beth A. Simmons and Zachary Elkins
University of Pennsylvania and University of Texas, Austin
Downloads 60 (446,079)
Citation 13

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political reform, economic reform, diffusion

33.

Frames and Consensus Formation in International Relations: The Case of Trafficking in Persons

European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 21, Pg. 323, 2015, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 16-39
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 29 Oct 2016
Volha Charnysh, Paulette Lloyd and Beth A. Simmons
Princeton University, Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance, Indiana University - Bloomington and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 59 (449,755)

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Human rights, international consensus, trafficking in persons, transnational crime, United Nations, General Assembly, Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs Committee, Third Committee, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, TIP Protocol

34.

The Dynamic Impact of Periodic Review on Women’s Rights

Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 81, No. 4, Pg. 31, 2018, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19:03
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 17 Jan 2019
Cosette D. Creamer and Beth A. Simmons
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - Department of Political Science and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 57 (457,257)

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International relations, international law, human rights treaties, treaty compliance & violation, self-reporting procedure, periodic review process, compliance with treaty obligations, discrimination against women, women’s rights, mechanisms that link Geneva bodies with local politics

35.
Downloads 57 (457,257)
Citation 6

Treaty Compliance and Violation

Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 13, pp. 273-296, 2010
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 01 Nov 2016
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 57 (464,217)
Citation 6

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International Relations, International Law, Treaties, Treaty Compliance and Violation, State-Centered Focus, Influence of Non-State and Sub-State Actors on Treaty Behavior

Treaty Compliance and Violation

Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 13, pp. 273-296, 2010
Posted: 14 Oct 2010
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania

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36.

Conclusion: The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy

The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy, p. 344, Geoffrey Garrett, Frank Dobbin, and Beth Simmons, eds., Cambridge University Press, March 2008
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 22 Mar 2014
Geoffrey Garrett, Frank Dobbin and Beth A. Simmons
Pacific Council on International Policy, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 54 (468,450)

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37.

Measuring Norms and Normative Contestation: The Case of International Criminal Law

Journal of Global Security Studies, vol. 4, p. 18, 2019, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-13
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 01 Mar 2019
Beth A. Simmons and Hyeran Jo
University of Pennsylvania and Texas A&M University - Department of Political Science
Downloads 53 (472,434)

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norms, international criminal law, international humanitarian law, International Criminal Court, security and human rights, public opinion

38.

Politics by Number: Indicators As Social Pressure in International Relations

American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 59, P. 55, 2015
Number of pages: 56 Posted: 29 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 31 Mar 2019
Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 32 (571,041)
Citation 10

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human trafficking, international politics and governance, performance indicators, systematic monitoring, feedback, shaming, state policy outputs, social pressure theory, empirical analysis, criminalization

39.

Governance by Other Means: Rankings as Regulatory Systems

International Theory, Vol. 13, p. 169, 2021, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 21-26
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 31 (576,649)

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ratings and rankings, indicators, performance, shaming, norms, social pressure, social influence

40.

East Asia, Investment, and International Law: Distinctive or Convergent?

Korean Journal of International Studies, Vol. 13, P. 461, 2015, U of Penn, Inst for Law & Econ Research Paper No. 19-09
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 04 Mar 2019
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 27 (600,786)

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international investment, international law, bilateral investment treaties, foreign direct investment, FDI, investor protection, East and Southeast Asian states, regulatory constraint, dispute settlement, bargaining power, relative growth rates

41.

IO Special Symposium on International Diffusion of Liberalism

Simmons, Beth, Frank Dobbin, Geoffrey Garrett, and Editors. "Symposium on Global Diffusion of Public Policies". Special issue of International Organization 60 (Fall) 2006.
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 28 Jun 2013
Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin and Geoffrey Garrett
University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 27 (600,786)
Citation 2

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42.

Symposium on Global Diffusion of Public Policies

International Organization, 60, Fall 2006, pp. 781-810
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Mar 2014
Beth A. Simmons, Frank Dobbin and Geoffrey Garrett
University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University - Department of Sociology and Pacific Council on International Policy
Downloads 24 (620,765)

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43.

Built on Borders? Tensions with the Institution Liberalism (Thought It) Left Behind

International Organization, Vol. 75, p. 387, 2021, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 21-24
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Beth A. Simmons and Hein E. Goemans
University of Pennsylvania and University of Rochester
Downloads 13 (700,805)

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International relations, international organization, borders, territory, nation-state, nationalism, identity, social geography, spatial identities & preferences, territorial sovereignty, liberal & democratic theory, liberal international order, security, border hardening, populism

44.

Testing for Negative Spillovers: Is Promoting Human Rights Really Part of the “Problem”?

International Organization, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2021, U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 21-25
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 02 Aug 2021
Anton Strezhnev, Judith G. Kelley and Beth A. Simmons
University of Chicago - Department of Political Science, Duke University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 9 (732,323)

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Human rights, international law, international relations, counteraction, spillover effects, backlash, causal inference, sensitivity analysis, instrumental variables

45.

Local Elected Officials’ Receptivity to Refugee Resettlement in the United States

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 117(50), Pg. 31722 (December 15, 2020)., U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-42
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 25 Feb 2021
Robert Shaffer, Lauren Pinson, Jonathan Chu and Beth A. Simmons
University of Texas at Austin, Yale University - Department of Political Science, Stanford University and University of Pennsylvania
Downloads 7 (748,237)

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Human rights, humanitarian, refugee resettlement, immigration, local government officials, policymakers, United States, attitudes toward refugees, immigrants, empirical study, determinants of receptivity, experimental design, language skills, education, sponsorship status, economic contributions

46.

The Built Environment: State Presence at Border Crossings in the Modern World

Posted: 11 Oct 2018
Beth A. Simmons
University of Pennsylvania

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international relations, political geography, international borders, border crossings, infrastructure, architecture, border walls

47.

Subjective Frames and Rational Choice: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking

Posted: 05 Aug 2010
Beth A. Simmons and Paulette Lloyd
University of Pennsylvania and Indiana University - Bloomington

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Human trafficking, globalization, transnational crime, framing, human rights, international law

48.

To Settle or Empanel? An Empirical Analysis of Litigation and Settlement at the WTO

Posted: 23 May 2002
Andrew T. Guzman and Beth A. Simmons
USC Gould School of Law and University of Pennsylvania

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