Public Research and Industrial Innovation: A Comparison of U.S. and European Innovation Systems in the Life Sciences
SCIENCE AND INNOVATION: RETHINKING THE RATIONALES FOR FUNDING AND GOVERNANCE, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2003
Posted: 26 Nov 2007 Last revised: 5 Oct 2013
Public research systems in the United States and Europe are often compared with respect to their divergent levels of involvement in the private economy. The U.S. research system, with its mix of both public and private institutions, has long played a significant role in conducting research that contributes to technological development and industrial performance (Geiger, 1988; Rosenberg and Nelson, 1994). Historically, this 'knowledge plus' orientation, in which high quality public and academic research tends to be driven by 'joint goals of understanding and use' (Stokes, 1997, p. 15) was contrasted to the European scene, where universities were believed to contribute more to knowledge for its own sake and to the preservation of distinctive national cultures (Ben David, 1977).
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