The Potential Problem with Dual Gas Pricing Practices at the WTO

16 Pages Posted: 26 Jun 2008 Last revised: 22 Jun 2020

See all articles by Daniel Behn

Daniel Behn

Queen Mary University of London; PluriCourts University of Oslo

Date Written: December 17, 2007


Dual pricing is a practice that has garnered significant attention recently as either a potentially prohibited export subsidy or an actionable de facto specific subsidy under the WTO. Dual pricing practices by natural resource-endowed countries allow for the domestic price of natural resources to be set significantly lower than export market prices. Such practices permit countries to provide energy inputs to its consumers and domestic industries at discounted prices. These practices are of particular concern in industries that require either large energy inputs (such as the steel industry), or a large provision of resource-based energy commodities (such as the petrol-chemical industry). This paper will explore the issues relating to dual pricing practices in the resource-based energy sector, while at the same time considering the possibility of creating a framework for the expansion of the practice into other renewable and non-renewable natural resource-based industries.

Keywords: WTO, Dual Pricing, Export, Subsidies, Energy, Sustainable, Resources, WTO Accession, WTO-plus

JEL Classification: A1, F1, F13, F14, H2, K33, L61, L71, O13, O14, Q2, Q3, Q4

Suggested Citation

Behn, Daniel, The Potential Problem with Dual Gas Pricing Practices at the WTO (December 17, 2007). Available at SSRN: or

Daniel Behn (Contact Author)

Queen Mary University of London ( email )

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+44 03791 085569 (Phone)


PluriCourts University of Oslo ( email )

PO Box 6706
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Oslo, 0130
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