Trends and Transitions in the Institutional Environment for Public and Private Science

Posted: 9 Nov 2009

See all articles by Jason Owen-Smith

Jason Owen-Smith

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: 2005


Examines trends in the commercialization ofacademic research in the United States. The adoption of the Bayh-Dole Act in1980, which allowed universities to patent work that resulted from federalfunds, was one of the early federal policy changes that began thiscommercialization. This study utilizes patenting and publication data from 1981 to 1995 for 87research-intensive universities.The four variables used to represent theinstitutional environment faced by universities are number of patents, patentcitation impact, number of papers, and paper impact.Nine controlvariables include federal R&D expenditures, industrial R&Dexpenditures, tech transfer experience, experience, public, land grant, medicalschool, multi-campus, and geographic region. Results indicate that in thedecade after the Bayh-Dole Act was passed,there was a shift from balancing patents and publications to placing greaterfocus on extensive patenting in proportion toacademic publications.Other shifts also occurredin the continuing change inthebalance ofpatents and publications.Those universities thatbegan patenting at or before the Bayh-Dole Act was enacted appear to have anadvantage in this balancing game. (SRD)

Keywords: Academic research, Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, Colleges & universities, Commercialization, Intellectual property, Organizational change, Patents, R&D, Scholarly publications, Technology transfer

Suggested Citation

Owen-Smith, Jason, Trends and Transitions in the Institutional Environment for Public and Private Science (2005). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Available at SSRN:

Jason Owen-Smith (Contact Author)

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor ( email )

Ann Arbor, MI
United States

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