Happiness is Flextime

Applied Research in Quality of Life, Forthcoming

12 Pages Posted: 11 May 2017

See all articles by Adam Okulicz-Kozaryn

Adam Okulicz-Kozaryn

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden

Lonnie Golden

Pennsylvania State University - Abington College; Economic Policy Institute; Project for Middle Class Renewal

Date Written: March 2, 2017


We study how working schedule flexibility (flextime) affects happiness. We use a US General Social Survey (GSS) pooled dataset containing the Quality of Worklife and Work Orientations modules for 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. We retain only respondents who are either full-time or part-time employees on payrolls. For flextime to be associated with greater happiness, it has to be more than just sometimes flexible or slight input into one’s work schedule, that is, little flextime does not increase happiness. But substantial flextime has large effect on happiness–the size effect is about as large as that of household income, or about as large as one-step increase in self-reported health, such as up from good to excellent health. Our findings provide support for both public and organizational policies that would promote greater work schedule flexibility or control for employees.

Keywords: Happiness; Flexible Work; Workplace Flexibility; Work Schedules; Well-Being

JEL Classification: J21; J22; J22; E03

Suggested Citation

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam and Golden, Lonnie, Happiness is Flextime (March 2, 2017). Applied Research in Quality of Life, Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2965318 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2965318

Adam Okulicz-Kozaryn

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Camden ( email )

Camden, NJ 08102
United States

Lonnie Golden (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University - Abington College ( email )

1600 Woodland Rd.
Abington, PA 19001
United States
215-881-7596 (Phone)
215-881-7333 (Fax)

Economic Policy Institute ( email )

1660 L Street NW, Suite 1200
Washington, DC 20036
United States

Project for Middle Class Renewal ( email )

1408 W. Gregory Dr.
Urbana, IL 61801
United States

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