Intimate Partner Violence: The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women

44 Pages Posted: 23 Jan 2020 Last revised: 24 Jan 2020

See all articles by Sonia R. Bhalotra

Sonia R. Bhalotra

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Uma Kambhampati

University of Reading

Samantha B. Rawlings

University of Reading - Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences

Zahra Siddique

University of Bristol

Date Written: January 22, 2020

Abstract

This study examines the association of unemployment variation with intimate partner violence using representative data from thirty-one developing countries, through 2005 to 2016. It finds that a 1 percent increase in the male unemployment rate is associated with an increase in the incidence of physical violence against women by 0.50 percentage points, or 2.75 percent. This is consistent with financial and psychological stress generated by unemployment. Female unemployment rates have the opposite effect, a 1 percent decrease being associated with an increase in the probability of victimization of 0.52 percentage points, or 2.87 percent. That an improvement in women's employment opportunities is associated with increased violence is consistent with male backlash. The study finds that this pattern of behaviours emerges entirely from countries in which women have more limited access to divorce than men.

Suggested Citation

Bhalotra, Sonia R. and Kambhampati, Uma and Rawlings, Samantha B. and Siddique, Zahra, Intimate Partner Violence: The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women (January 22, 2020). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9118, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3524104

Sonia R. Bhalotra (Contact Author)

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Uma Kambhampati

University of Reading ( email )

Whiteknights
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AH
United Kingdom

Samantha B. Rawlings

University of Reading - Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences ( email )

United Kingdom

Zahra Siddique

University of Bristol ( email )

University of Bristol,
Senate House, Tyndall Avenue
Bristol, BS8 ITH
United Kingdom

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