Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States

41 Pages Posted: 11 Sep 2020 Last revised: 26 Nov 2021

See all articles by Pierre Azoulay

Pierre Azoulay

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Benjamin F. Jones

Northwestern University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

J. Daniel Kim

The Wharton School

Javier Miranda

US Census Bureau — Economy-Wide Statistics Division

Date Written: September 2020

Abstract

Immigration can expand labor supply and create greater competition for native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data resources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how these firms compare with those founded by U.S.-born individuals. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and that non-U.S. born founders play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship.

Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.

Suggested Citation

Azoulay, Pierre and Jones, Benjamin F. and Kim, J. Daniel and Miranda, Javier, Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States (September 2020). NBER Working Paper No. w27778, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3687934

Pierre Azoulay (Contact Author)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management ( email )

100 Main Street
E62-416
Cambridge, MA 02142
United States

HOME PAGE: http://scripts.mit.edu/~pazoulay/

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Benjamin F. Jones

Northwestern University ( email )

2001 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208
United States
847-491-3177 (Phone)
847-467-1777 (Fax)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

J. Daniel Kim

The Wharton School ( email )

3641 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6365
United States

Javier Miranda

US Census Bureau — Economy-Wide Statistics Division ( email )

Washington, DC
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
18
Abstract Views
351
PlumX Metrics