Propuesta de Reforma Tributaria para Colombia (2021-2022) (Proposal of Tax-Reform for Colombia (2021-2022))

28 Pages Posted: 25 Sep 2020

Date Written: September 18, 2020

Abstract

Spanish Abstract: Este documento propone una reforma tributaria comprensiva tendiente a: i) asegurar la sostenibilidad de la relación Deuda Gobierno Central/PIB de tal manera que no se desborde el umbral del 70%, sabiéndose que esta ha subido del 35% al 52% en pre-pandemia; ii) mejorar la formalidad laboral de Colombia a través de desmontar cerca de 17 puntos de un total de 51 que hoy representan los sobre costos no-salariales que enfrentan las firmas operando desde Colombia; y iii) allegar recursos de solidaridad en pos-pandemia para los estratos bajos y ancianos indigentes.

El esfuerzo tributario adicional requerido para alcanzar tales objetivos asciende a cerca de 5% del PIB, de los cuales se tienen fuentes relativamente bien identificadas por cerca de 3.7% del PIB hacia el mediano plazo. La profundización del IVA a la tasa del 19% aportaría cerca de 2% del PIB; tasas más progresivas en los ingresos de la clase media-alta (incluyendo ajustes al imporiqueza) aportarían 0.5% del PIB; y la reversión en algunos alivios dados a la firmas (bajo Ley 2010 del 2019) allegarían el restante 1.2% del PIB.

Tal vez la mejor forma de divulgar los objetivos de esta reforma es visualizándola como un paquete fiscal que, en últimas, lograría sostenibilidad fiscal, mejoras en la calidad del mercado laboral y mayor equidad en el frente del gasto público.

English Abstract: This document proposes a comprehensive tax-reform for Colombia aiming at: i) providing sustainability for the ratio of Central Government Gross Debt/GDP below the threshold of 70%, knowing that it has been raising from 35% up to 52% during 2012-2019; ii) substituting by budget allocations about 17 percentage points out of 51 of non-wage costs on behalf of the firms; and iii) create fiscal room to increase support for low strata families, particularly affected by the pandemic of Covid-19 which erupted over 2020-2021.

We conclude that achieving such fiscal goals will require close to 5% of GDP of additional tax collections of which we here identified nearly 3.7% of GPD over the period 2021-2022. By extending from 45% to 90% of invoicing-items the application of the current general VAT-rate of 19%, about 2% of GPD could be raised; the use of more progressive income-tax rates and lowering the level of application of the current wealth-tax on households would increase tax collections in about 0.5% of GDP; and, finally, the reversion of some tax-exemptions recently granted to firms (under Law 2010 of 2019) could increase tax-revenue by 1.2% of GDP.

Perhaps the best form to impulse this tax-reform is to envision it as an instrument to improve not only the debt sustainability of Colombia, but as an efficient instrument to improve income equality and to provide better formal opportunities for a labor market facing open unemployment at double-digit rates.

Note: Downloadable document is in Spanish.

Keywords: América, Impuestos, Bienes Públicos, Deuda Pública, Latino

JEL Classification: O54, H2, H44, H63

Suggested Citation

Clavijo, Sergio, Propuesta de Reforma Tributaria para Colombia (2021-2022) (Proposal of Tax-Reform for Colombia (2021-2022)) (September 18, 2020). Documento CEDE No. 38, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3697662 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3697662

Sergio Clavijo (Contact Author)

Universidad de los Andes ( email )

Cra 1 # 18 A - 12
Bogota, Cundinamarca 111711
Colombia
57-1-703-5135 (Phone)

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