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Changes in National Rates of Psychiatric Beds and Incarceration in Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia From 1990-2019: A Retrospective Database Analysis

31 Pages Posted: 22 Dec 2020

See all articles by Adrian Mundt

Adrian Mundt

Universidad Diego Portales - Medical Faculty

Enzo Rozas-Serri

Universidad Diego Portales - Medical Faculty

Mathias Siebenförcher

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin - Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Campus Mitte

Valbona Alikaj

University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa” - Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Fouad Ismayilov

Azerbaijan Medical University

Yury Evgeny Razvodovsky

Grodno State Medical University

Mevludin Hasanovic

University of Tuzla - Department of Psychiatry

Petar Marinov

Standing Committee for Professional Standards and By-Laws of the Bulgarian Psychiatric Association

Tanja Frančišković

University of Rijeka - Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine

Pavla Cermakova

National Institute of Mental Health, Czech Republic

Jaanus Harro

University of Tartu - Division of Neuropsychopharmacology

Lela Sulaberizde

Curatio International Foundation

Miklós Péter Kalapos

Theoretical Biology Research Group

Marat Assimov

Kazakh National Medical University - Department of Communication Skills

Saltanat Nurmagambetova

Kazakhstan Republican Mental Health Center

Nazmie Ibishi

University Clinical Centre of Kosovo - Clinic of Psychiatry

Elena Molchanova

American University of Central Asia

Māris Taube

Riga Stradin's University - Department of Psychiatry

Jana Chihai

State Medical and Pharmaceutical University Nicolae Testemitanu - Medical Psychology and Narcology Department

Jovo Dedovic

Special Psychiatric Hospital Kotor - Forensic Psychiatry Unit

Pawel Gosek

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology - Department of Forensic Psychiatry

Nicoleta Tataru

Forensic Psychiatry Hospital Stei

Andrei Golenkov

Chuvash State University

Dušica Lečić-Toševski

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Dunja Randjelovic

University of Belgrade - Institute of Mental Health

Lubomira Izakova

Comenius University - Department of Psychiatry

Vesna Švab

University of Ljubljana - Faculty of Medicine

Mutabara Vohidova

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Tajikistan

Nina Kerimi

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Turkmenistan

Oleksii Sukhovii

Ministry of Health of Ukraine - Center for Mental Health and Monitoring of Drugs and Alcohol

Stefan Priebe

Queen Mary University of London - Unit of Social and Community Psychiatry

More...

Abstract

Background: Numbers of psychiatric beds (general, forensic, and residential) and prison populations have been considered to be indicators of institutionalization. The present study aimed to assess changes of those indicators across Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) over the last three decades to capture how care has developed during that historical period.

Methods: We retrospectively obtained data on numbers of psychiatric beds and prison populations from 30 countries in CEECA between 1990 and 2019. Mean and median rates, as well as percent changes between first and last data points, were calculated for all of CEECA and for groups of countries based on former political alliances, income levels, and a priori defined trend characteristics.

Findings: Primary data were retrieved from 25 out of 30 countries. Data from secondary sources were used for the remaining five countries. For all of CEECA, the median rate of general psychiatric beds decreased by 33·8% between 1990 and 2019. Median increases were observed for forensic psychiatric beds (24·7%), residential facility beds (12·0%), and for prison populations (36·0%). Greater reductions of rates of psychiatric beds were observed in countries with lower per capita income as well as in countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. Seventeen out of 30 countries showed inverse trends for general psychiatric beds and prison populations over time, indicating a possible shift of institutionalization towards correctional settings.

Interpretation: Most countries had decreased rates of general psychiatric beds, while there was an increase of forensic capacities. There was an increase in incarceration rates in a majority of countries. The large variation of changes underlines the need for policies that are informed by data and by comparisons across countries.

Funding Statement: Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo in Chile, grant scheme FONDECYT Regular, grant number 1190613.

Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.

Suggested Citation

Mundt, Adrian and Rozas-Serri, Enzo and Siebenförcher, Mathias and Alikaj, Valbona and Ismayilov, Fouad and Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny and Hasanovic, Mevludin and Marinov, Petar and Frančišković, Tanja and Cermakova, Pavla and Harro, Jaanus and Sulaberizde, Lela and Kalapos, Miklós Péter and Assimov, Marat and Nurmagambetova, Saltanat and Ibishi, Nazmie and Molchanova, Elena and Taube, Māris and Chihai, Jana and Dedovic, Jovo and Gosek, Pawel and Tataru, Nicoleta and Golenkov, Andrei and Lečić-Toševski, Dušica and Randjelovic, Dunja and Izakova, Lubomira and Švab, Vesna and Vohidova, Mutabara and Kerimi, Nina and Sukhovii, Oleksii and Priebe, Stefan, Changes in National Rates of Psychiatric Beds and Incarceration in Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia From 1990-2019: A Retrospective Database Analysis. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3738091 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3738091

Adrian Mundt (Contact Author)

Universidad Diego Portales - Medical Faculty ( email )

Ejercito 233
Santiago, 8370068
Chile

Enzo Rozas-Serri

Universidad Diego Portales - Medical Faculty ( email )

Ejercito 233
Santiago, 8370068
Chile

Mathias Siebenförcher

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin - Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Campus Mitte ( email )

Valbona Alikaj

University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa” - Service of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ( email )

Rruga e Dibrës Nr. 371
Tirana, 1005
Albania

Fouad Ismayilov

Azerbaijan Medical University ( email )

Yury Evgeny Razvodovsky

Grodno State Medical University ( email )

Mevludin Hasanovic

University of Tuzla - Department of Psychiatry ( email )

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Petar Marinov

Standing Committee for Professional Standards and By-Laws of the Bulgarian Psychiatric Association ( email )

Tanja Frančišković

University of Rijeka - Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine ( email )

Hahlic 6
Rijeka, 51000
Croatia

Pavla Cermakova

National Institute of Mental Health, Czech Republic

Topolová 748
Klecany, 250 67
Czech Republic

Jaanus Harro

University of Tartu - Division of Neuropsychopharmacology ( email )

Tiigi str. 78-347
50410 Tartu
Estonia

Lela Sulaberizde

Curatio International Foundation ( email )

Miklós Péter Kalapos

Theoretical Biology Research Group ( email )

Marat Assimov

Kazakh National Medical University - Department of Communication Skills ( email )

Saltanat Nurmagambetova

Kazakhstan Republican Mental Health Center ( email )

Nazmie Ibishi

University Clinical Centre of Kosovo - Clinic of Psychiatry ( email )

Elena Molchanova

American University of Central Asia ( email )

205 Abdymomunov Street
Bishkek, 720040
Kyrgyzstan

Māris Taube

Riga Stradin's University - Department of Psychiatry ( email )

Dzirciema 16
Riga, LV1007
Latvia

Jana Chihai

State Medical and Pharmaceutical University Nicolae Testemitanu - Medical Psychology and Narcology Department ( email )

Jovo Dedovic

Special Psychiatric Hospital Kotor - Forensic Psychiatry Unit ( email )

Pawel Gosek

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology - Department of Forensic Psychiatry ( email )

Nicoleta Tataru

Forensic Psychiatry Hospital Stei ( email )

Andrei Golenkov

Chuvash State University ( email )

universitetskaya street,38
Cheboxary, Nizhny Novgorod region 428000
Russia

Dušica Lečić-Toševski

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts ( email )

Dunja Randjelovic

University of Belgrade - Institute of Mental Health ( email )

Studentski trg 1
Belgrade, 11000
Serbia

Lubomira Izakova

Comenius University - Department of Psychiatry ( email )

SK-84215 Bratislava
Slovakia

Vesna Švab

University of Ljubljana - Faculty of Medicine ( email )

Slovenia

Mutabara Vohidova

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Tajikistan ( email )

Nina Kerimi

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Turkmenistan ( email )

Oleksii Sukhovii

Ministry of Health of Ukraine - Center for Mental Health and Monitoring of Drugs and Alcohol ( email )

Stefan Priebe

Queen Mary University of London - Unit of Social and Community Psychiatry ( email )

Mile End Road
London, London E1 4NS
United Kingdom

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