Coffee Production Effects on Child Labor and Schooling in Rural Brazil

36 Pages Posted: 7 Dec 2004

See all articles by Diana I. Kruger

Diana I. Kruger

Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Date Written: August 2004


I use variation in coffee production to measure changes in local economic conditions, which proxy for the value of children's time. I test how this variation affects child labor and schooling in Brazilian coffee regions using seven rounds of household surveys. Increases in county-level value of coffee production led to more work and less schooling among boys, and lower schooling among girls. Girls without childcare responsibilities were more likely to work. Poorer boys and girls were withdrawn from school, while richer children were more likely to attend. Thus, during periods of economic growth, education of the poor is adversely affected.

Keywords: Child labor, school enrollment, schooling, Brazil, time allocation, coffee

JEL Classification: D13, I20, J22, O10, O12

Suggested Citation

Kruger, Diana I., Coffee Production Effects on Child Labor and Schooling in Rural Brazil (August 2004). Available at SSRN: or

Diana I. Kruger (Contact Author)

Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso ( email )

Avenida Brasil 2950
Casilla 4059, Valparaiso, 2362736
56-32-27-33-52 (Phone)
56-32-27-34-24 (Fax)


IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics